Dispute lifecycle

The following guide aims to cover all the information you need to know as a juror to understand a dispute's lifecycle and its related tasks so you can have the best experience possible using the Aragon Court Dashboard. For an overview of the Dashboard and its modules, click here.

The Court's main unit of time is called a term, which is currently set to eight hours. Every time period in Aragon Court is composed of terms (e.g. the vote commit duration lasts six terms, or two days). The current term and its remaining time is always displayed at the top of the dashboard.

As for disputes, they essentially observe the following lifecycle:

  • Pre-draft state: Dispute creation and evidence submission.
  • Adjudication rounds: Adjudication rounds are where jurors are drafted, review the dispute's evidence, then cast and reveal their votes. Disputes can be made up of multiple rounds if the first round's ruling is appealed.
  • Final ruling: Dispute is settled.

1. Dispute creation and evidence submission

Disputes can be created by any entity subscribed to Aragon Court. Subscribers must currently pay a monthly subscription fee of 10 DAI.

Once a dispute is created, a time period of seven days is allowed to submit evidence that will later be reviewed by jurors. Evidence can be submitted in text format but HTTP and IPFS links are also accepted.

No action is required by jurors during this period.

2. Drafting jury

After the evidence period is over, the first adjudication round is initiated and the Drafting jury period begins. The only task required during this period is to click on the Draft jury button in the dispute page. Anybody can execute this task and receive a DAI reward proportional to the number of jurors being drafted. The current draft reward amount is 0.18 DAI per juror.

Your chances of being drafted as a juror are directly proportional to your active amount of ANJ.

If you get selected as a juror, here are a few things you need to know:

  • You will receive an email notification containing information about the dispute and the next steps for you.
  • A portion of your active ANJ will be locked until the final ruling is confirmed. The main purpose of locking your active ANJ is to incentivize consensus decisions and honest behavior. The exact locked amount is equal to 30% of the minimum active balance for each time you get drafted. The minimum active balance is currently 10,000 ANJ, therefore the amount locked would be 3,000 ANJ. You can learn more about the various scenarios possible for your locked tokens in the voting and ruling sections.
  • It's possible to get drafted multiple times for the same dispute, if there are appeal rounds. In that case, the amount locked will be multiplied by the number of times you are being drafted. The voting power will also be proportional to this number. For example, a juror getting drafted twice for a dispute would have 6,000 ANJ locked and twice the normal voting weight.
  • Neither your inactive ANJ nor the ANJ contained in your wallet will be locked, only ANJ from your active.

3. Vote commit

The voting period is critical for a drafted juror. What you must do within the allocated time is first to review the evidence, then to try anticipating what the voting decision of the plurality of jurors will be.

This seems counterintuitive at first. The Aragon Court is not exactly functioning like most legacy court systems in which every juror is asked for their unbiased opinion. If this would be the case, it would be unfair to penalize the ruling minority. Instead, jurors are incentivized to reach consensus and are rewarded or penalized accordingly.

Most importantly, it is essential to cast a vote since failing to do so will result in financial penalties for you. 

Failing to cast a vote will result in your locked tokens getting slashed and redistributed to the winning jurors after the final ruling - so make sure to commit and reveal your vote in the allotted time periods.

The vote commit period lasts two days. Here are the steps required to cast a vote:

3.1 Select one of the three voting choices

Three choices are available: voting to Allow the action being disputed, voting to Block the action, or Refuse to vote. You can choose refuse to vote for many reasons, for example if you consider that the evidence was not conclusive enough or the description was incoherent. Remember that you should vote the way that you think a plurality of jurors will vote, since you will be penalized if your vote is in the minority.

3.2 One-time-use code

To keep the votes secret until the end of the voting period, your vote will be combined with a randomly generated code. For security purposes, it's important that you save this code somewhere safe (such as inside a password manager) and do not share it with anyone.

Enable Court Auto-reveal service is a convenient option available if you want your vote to be revealed automatically during the next phase. If you select this option, you are relying on Aragon One, the company that hosts the Aragon Court Dashboard at https://court.aragon.org, to cast your reveal transaction on time. Otherwise, manual action will be necessary during the Reveal period.

Click the Commit your vote button to send the transaction.

3.3 Leaking the secret one-time-use code

If you leak your one-time-use-code, either on accident or on purpose, you could be penalized. This will put you on the losing side of a dispute even if you cast your vote for the plurality outcome, and your locked ANJ will be redistributed to the plurality jurors after the final ruling. This mechanism is in place to dis-incentivize cheating/ collusion among jurors.

If another juror leaks their one-time-use code then you can penalize them using the following steps (this will be added to the juror dashboard for ease of use in the near future).

Step 1. Visit the " leak" section of the Aragon Court "write contract" page on Etherscan.

Step 2. Fill out the form fields with the following information:

  •  _voteId: enter the vote ID that the juror is leaking their code for.
    • To get the vote ID, go to the Aragon Court subgraph "Disputes and rounds with votes" section, enter the Dispute # in place of "0" where it says {id_in: [0]}, then press Ctrl+Enter on your keyboard to execute the query. On the right side of the query box it will say "vote": "id": "0". In this case 0 is the vote ID. Note that the vote ID will be different for any dispute other than Dispute #0.
  • _voter: the Ethereum address of the cheating juror
  • _outcome: the outcome the cheating juror submitted. It can be a 2 (Refuse to rule), a 3 (Against), or a 4 (In favor).
  • _salt: the salt the cheating juror used to commit the vote
    • To get the salt, take the one-time-use code that was leaked and enter it as the "Input" on this Keccak256 conversion tool then press the "Hash" button. The result int the "Output" box is what you should copy/paste into the _salt field.

An example of the completed form looks like this:

Step 3. Click the "write" button, then sign and send the transaction. Once the transaction is confirmed, the juror who leaked their one-time-use code will be penalized.

4. Vote reveal

After the voting period has ended, jurors will have two days to reveal their vote.

If you enabled the Auto-reveal service, there is no action required from you at this stage. Otherwise, simply click on the Reveal your vote button. Your one-time code shouldn't be necessary unless a problem occurred within the court, but if it is needed, you'll be prompted to retrieve it from the safe place you stored it and enter it into the juror app.

5. Appeal and appeal confirmation

Now that the votes are revealed, you can see whether you voted with the plurality or not. But before the ruling can be executed, an appeal period is started during which any user can lock DAI as collateral to propose an appeal. The amount to lock is currently 30.87 DAI per drafted juror.

However, an appeal must be confirmed by a second user to officially start a new round. The amount to lock as collateral for this second user is 20.58 DAI per drafted juror.

If an appeal is confirmed, a new adjudication round is initiated and a new jury is drafted. With each new appeal, the number of jurors is multiplied by three. The appeal and appeal confirmation periods both last two days.

If an appeal is not confirmed, then the outcome proposed by the appealing party wins. For example, if the ruling of the previous round was "Allow" and the appealing party proposes an "Block" ruling, and no one confirms the appeal, then the final ruling will be "Block".

When the final ruling is confirmed, if the ruling has switched in favor of the user who appealed (the "appealing party") then the collateral of the user who confirmed the appeal (the "confirming party") is redistributed to the appealing party. If the ruling is in favor of the confirming party, then the collateral of the appealing party is redistributed to the confirming party. And if the final ruling is in neither the appealing party nor the confirming party's favor, then both the appealing party and confirming party get their collateral back minus a fee that goes to the jurors who voted in the plurality.

6. Final ruling

Once a ruling has been decided without any appeal, the final ruling is sent to the smart contract that triggered the dispute and all the adjudication rounds for the dispute can be settled taking into account the final ruling for rewards and penalties.

If, as a juror, you voted with the plurality of jurors in the final ruling, congratulations! You just earned 10 DAI and a percentage of the slashed ANJ from jurors who voted in the minority.

If, however, you voted with the minority, your locked ANJ is redistributed to the jurors who voted with the plurality in the final ruling.

7. Final appeal round

The maximum number of appeal rounds is not infinite, it is currently set to four. If an appeal is still confirmed after the maximum allowed is reached, a final round is initiated where all active jurors are drafted to cast a vote, in which case all jurors will be required to make up and safely store a secret passphrase to vote. The auto-reveal service is currently disabled for the final appeal round, so jurors will have to manually reveal their vote with their secret passphrase during the final reveal period.

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